Risk Evaluation of Uranium Exposure through Drinking Water: Bio-kinetic Modelling and Assessment in Ferozepur District, Punjab, India

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Kawaljeet Kaur Bindra, Genius Walia, Rohit Mehra


This study aimed to assess uranium and other physicochemical parameters in the drinking water of Punjab Ferozepur district, India. Samples were collected from 22 areas during the June to September 2019 monsoon season. Uranium concentration, pH, EC, and TDS were analyzed using a LED Fluorimeter and a water analyzer kit at the Radiation Physics Laboratory of the National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar. Uranium concentrations varied from 16.01µg/l to 473.57µg/l, exceeding the WHO guideline of 30 µg/l in certain areas. Correlation studies among parameters were conducted. The study also examined daily uranium ingestion rate (145.84 µg) over a 60-year exposure period and uranium retention in various organs. Timely uranium excretion assessment via urine, feces, and hair using the ICRP bio-kinetic model was conducted. Additionally, a systematic case study in the high-risk Ferozepur district evaluated groundwater uranium concentration and associated toxicity.

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