Principles of Nursing Care in Cardiovascular Patients with High Blood Pressure and Examination of Psychological Problems and Stress in Long-term Hospitalized Patients

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Vahid Sabri, Maryam Saberi, Mehrnoosh Lak, Hossein Alipoor, Azin Hasani


The rapid transition of health, demographic changes, aging process and rapid lifestyle changes along with economic and social changes have led to an increasing trend of morbidity, disability and mortality c

aused by non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular problems. Cardiovascular diseases have been introduced as the most important cause of death in the world with 17 million deaths per year. Cardiovascular diseases include diseases of the vascular system that affect blood supply to the heart, brain and peripheral areas of the body. Meanwhile, coronary heart disease is one of the most common diseases. This disease is caused by the narrowing and blockage of the coronary arteries that bring oxygenated blood to the heart. Blood vessels are narrowed due to plaques that form in a disease called atherosclerosis. Occlusion occurs when a clot forms from plaques or blood platelets, gets stuck in an artery and blocks blood flow. The relationship between psychological health and cardiovascular diseases is complex. For this reason, many people with cardiovascular problems receive a wide range of psychological treatments in order to reduce depression, anxiety, stress, or maladaptive behaviors. All psychological treatments in this field emphasize four basic assumptions. The first premise is that cardiovascular diseases as well as medical and surgical treatments related to these diseases are considered as a source of stress. The second assumption is that psychological characteristics can play a role in creating or aggravating cardiovascular diseases. The third hypothesis states that psychological problems can increase health-threatening behaviors and finally, the fourth hypothesis is that psychological treatments can correct such maladaptive behaviors. This can play an important role in preventing or treating cardiovascular problems.

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