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Introduction: The rise in drug resistance shown by human pathogenic bacteria become a clinical crisis from all over the world. In order to control the situation, it is essential to develop alternative drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases. Recent advancements in the field of green synthesis have enabled the development of alternative drugs.
Objectives: The work described in this paper details the phytochemical screening and biological investigation of Vitex negundo leaf extracts, which is mentioned in Ayurveda as a potential medicine to cure several diseases.
Methods: Acetone, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of Vitex negundo leaves were prepared using the Soxhlet apparatus. Preliminary phytochemical screening was done on aqueous leaf extract using qualitative phytochemical screening methods. The antibacterial activity of water, acetone, and alcohol extracts was tested against human pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumonia by adopting a disc diffusion method.
Results: Phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of Vitex negundo leaves reveals the presence of phytochemical constituents like carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and flavonoids. Biological investigation revealed that Staphylococcus aureus was highly inhibited by water extract of vitex negundo and the acetone extract shows the greatest inhibitory action against K. pneumoniae. Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles also exhibit greater inhibitory action against Staphylococcus aureus.
Conclusions: The results suggested that the leaf extract of Vitex negundo and the silver particle prepared from the leaf extract indeed possessed significant antimicrobial activity against all the bacteria tested but in both cases, the effect was greater towards S aureus.