Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine: A Comprehensive Review of Their Pharmacology and Clinical Applications

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Pawan Mandal, Amandeep Singh, Krishika Sharma, Pragati Jain, Manisha, Manvi Chaudhary, Pragna Chinmayee, Poorvi Ujjainia


Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are both sympathomimetic amines with a wide range of pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and central nervous systems. In this comprehensive review, we explore the pharmacology and clinical applications of these two compounds, with a focus on their use as decongestants and bronchodilators.We begin by describing the molecular structure and mechanisms of action of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, including their effects on adrenergic receptors and the release of endogenous catecholamines. We then review the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, including their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.Next, we discuss the clinical uses of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, focusing on their effectiveness as decongestants for nasal and sinus congestion and as bronchodilators for asthma and other respiratory conditions. We also examine their potential use in the treatment of hypotension, narcolepsy, and obesity.Finally, we discuss the safety and potential adverse effects of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, including their potential for abuse and dependence, cardiovascular effects, and interactions with other medications. We conclude with recommendations for the appropriate use of these compounds in clinical practice, including dosage recommendations and monitoring for potential adverse effects.

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