Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B): A Critical Molecular Target for Treatment and Management of Related Complications in Type-II Diabetes and Obesity

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Sanjeev Kumar Gautam, Bimlesh Kumar


One of our society's biggest health challenges is type 2 diabetes mellitus. In order to control this chronic condition and its associated problems, novel therapies are being developed despite the wide range of alternatives available for existing medication treatments. Since protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is an essential component of a negative regulator in the insulin and leptin signaling pathways, it is a promising therapeutic target for a number of human disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity. PTP1B inhibitors improve insulin receptor sensitivity and can treat illnesses linked to insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the group of cardiovascular risk factors known as the "metabolic" syndrome are strongly linked to resistance to the cellular action of insulin, a fundamental pathophysiological defect that accompanies the global obesity epidemic. The creation of new pharmaceuticals that lessen insulin resistance may be crucial for treating and preventing diabetes as well as lowering the cardiovascular risk profile that goes along with it. Research on the function of protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B in the cell has now demonstrated unequivocally that it is a crucial negative regulator of the tyrosine phosphorylation cascade, which is essential to the insulin signaling pathway. In over nourished situations, PTP1B inhibition also decreases the amount of triglycerides stored in adipose tissue and is not linked to any apparent harm. In general, these investigations have cleared the path for the commercialization of PTP1B inhibitors, which could potentially function as an innovative kind of "insulin sensitizer" for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.

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