Main Article Content
Lichenification consists of epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis that finally lead to the formation of thickened skin, hyperpigmentation, and exaggerated skin lines in its primary clinical manifestation. Appearance of lichenification has been discussed as a class of secondary skin lesion which is strongly associated with the clinical features and pathological mechanisms of chronic atopic dermatitis (AD) and a few other pruritic (itchy) disorders. Efforts has also been made to identify the role of different inflammatory neuromediators, neurohormones, nerve growth factors, and neuropeptides involved in lichenification and its underlying pathological condition from the previously published literature. A thorough histological examination details for appropriate diagnosis was described in this review for different types of lichenification, with a special mention of allergic contact dermatitis as a common clinical manifestation. In treatment options, monoclonal antibody, topical Calcineurin Inhibitors, corticosteroids, doxepin, derivatives of vitamin A, probiotics, and platelet-rich plasma has been found to be more effective in prior studies regarding this troublesome chronic AD symptom.