Improving Self Care Management for Hypertension Patients Based on the Health Belief Model: Literature Review

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Zuhariah Felis, Endang Triyanto


Background: Hypertension is a global health problem that is common worldwide. Around 31.1% of adults live with hypertension in the world, 28.5% in high-income and 31.5% in low- and middle-income countries. Hypertension management is influenced not only by knowledge and attitudes but also by independence in self-care management. The lack of self-care management is the result of behavior. Concerning health behavior, social psychologists developed the Health Belief Model to explore various health behaviors. Components of HBM are perceptions of susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy. Objective: To determine the HBM components that most effectively influence self-care management based on evidence-based research. Method: This research uses the PRISMA approach with a systematic review using PICO. The databases used are Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, and Semantic Scholar, with the keywords Self Care Management, Health Belief Model, and Blood Pressure. Inclusion criteria are international and national articles in English, full-text original research 2018-2023. The exclusion criteria were based on a literature review or meta-analysis and outside the topic of HBM to lower blood pressure. Results: Six components of HBM have been proven to influence increasing self-care management for hypertension sufferers. Perceived benefits are very effective in influencing increased self-care management. Conclusion: Based on a literature study of 9 articles, a person's knowledge and attitudes greatly influence decision-making in managing disease.

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