Hormones, Peptides and Neurotransmitters, Effects on Appetite Regulation and their Relationship to Obesity: Systematic Review

Main Article Content

Abebe Tesfa Gebrye, Narayan Dutt Soni, Sabir Hussain, Manish Lamoria, Andualem Mossie Ayana, Shimelis Mitiku Lemma, Divyanshu Shrimali, Niti Yadav, Surendra Kumar Meena


Background: Appetite regulation is a highly synchronized process that depends on the interaction of multiple hormones and neurotransmitters. These hormones are secreted by different parts of the body modifying hunger, satiety, and gastrointestinal motility, which affect appetite. The two primary mechanisms regulating appetite involve central nervous system regulators and peripheral regulators. More over hypothalamus has a major impact on appetite regulation.

Aim: to go over current research on how hormones, peptides, and neurotransmitters affect how we eat and how obesity is related to these effects.

Method: Studies published in English from 2000 to August 2022 that discussed appetite hormones, regulation and their connection to obesity were included in this systematic review. Research articles with free full-text, reviews, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials, and randomized controlled trials were included. This systemic review was obtained from PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Hinari sources using an electronic web-based search approach. Subject headings (e.g., MeSh in PubMed/MEDLINE) were used as search terms for every database. The search was made more narrowly and more broadly using Boolean operators like (AND, OR).

Result: 510 studies were accessed and screened from different databases. 216 publications were evaluated after titles, abstracts, and duplicates were eliminated from the data; 90 of these met the requirements for full-text studies, accessibility and having critical information. All told, 90 studies were taken into account for this systematic review.

Conclusion: In healthy people, eating is tightly controlled by a homeostatic and hedonic controller by initiating the desire to eat or stop eating when required energy is obtained from external sources. Obesity can result from the dysregulation of this system. 

Article Details