Main Article Content
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the supporting structures of the teeth, characterized by the destruction of periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and chronic periodontitis (CP) are two distinct forms of periodontal disease with varying levels of severity and progression. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a key cytokine associated with inflammation and immune responses, playing a crucial role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. This study aims to evaluate the presence of IL-17 levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients diagnosed with AgP and CP, providing insights into the immunological mechanisms underlying these conditions.
Materials and Methods:
The study included a total of 120 participants, divided into three groups: healthy individuals (n=40), AgP patients (n=40), and CP patients (n=40). Clinical parameters such as probing depth, clinical attachment loss, and bleeding on probing were recorded for each participant. GCF samples were collected from the subjects using standardized paper strips. IL-17 levels in GCF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was performed to compare the IL-17 levels among the three groups.
The results revealed a significant difference in IL-17 levels among the study groups. AgP patients exhibited a significantly higher concentration of IL-17 in GCF compared to both healthy individuals and CP patients (p<0.05). Additionally, CP patients showed a modest increase in IL-17 levels compared to the healthy control group, indicating a potential association between IL-17 and the chronic form of periodontitis. Clinical parameters, such as probing depth and clinical attachment loss, were also elevated in AgP and CP groups compared to the healthy control group.
This study provides evidence of elevated IL-17 levels in the GCF of both AgP and CP patients, suggesting a potential role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The significantly higher IL-17 levels in AgP patients highlight its potential as a biomarker for distinguishing between aggressive and chronic forms of periodontitis. The correlation between IL-17 levels and clinical parameters further supports the notion that IL-17 may contribute to the severity and progression of periodontal disease. These findings emphasize the importance of targeting IL-17 in the development of therapeutic interventions for periodontitis, tailoring treatment strategies based on the specific immunological profile of the patient.