Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Cardiac Markers among Male Cement Workers in Calabar, Nigeria

Iya Eze Bassey, Uwem Okon Akpan, Emono Dankano Nehemiah, Renen Arekong, Onyinyechi Lauretta Okonkwo, Alphonsus Ekpe Udoh

Abstract


Prolonged or repeated exposure to cement dust, depending on the duration, level of exposure and individual sensitivity has health implications on the skin, eyes, respiratory and haematological systems. This study assessed cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiac markers among cement workers of Nigerian origin to determine the effects of duration of exposure to cement dust on these parameters. Troponin I, Creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), anthropometric indices, lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) were determined in 50 cement workers and 40 controls. The cement workers were sub-grouped based on their duration of exposure. Significance level for statistical analyses was set at P < 0.05. The mean total cholesterol (P < 0.0001), HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.030), LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.004), VLDL-cholesterol (P < 0.0001), Triglycerides (P < 0.0001), troponin (P < 0.0001), CK-MB (P = 0.001) and AIP (P = 0.004) values were significantly higher in cement workers when compared with controls. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in FPG levels and the anthropometric indices measured. Cement workers with duration of exposure > 8years had higher mean values of FPG, CK-MB, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol.  This study has shown that lipid profile, troponin and CK-MB levels are significantly higher in cement workers compared to controls. Cement workers may be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

Keywords


Troponin; Myoglobin; Cement; Cardiovascular disease; Lipids

Full Text:

PDF XML

References


Potgieter J.H., 2012. An overview of cement production: How “green” and sustainable is the industry? EMSD. 1(7), 14 - 37.

Khana S., Chouhanb V., Chandrac B., Goswami S., 2014. Sustainable accounting reporting practices of Indian cement industry: An exploratory study. Uncertain Supply Chain Management. 2, 61–72.

Mendis S., Puska P., Norving B. Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control. World Health Organisation in collaboration with world heart federation and world stroke organization: Geneva, 2011.

Vasudevan D.M., Sreekumari S., Kannan V., Textbook of Biochemistry. 6th ed., Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Limited: New Delhi, 2011

Tariq M., Ali R., 2012. Comparative study for atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Beta thalassemia and hypothyroidism. Int J Chem Res. 2,1-9.

Dobiasova M., Frohlich J., Sedova M., Cheung M.C., Brow, B.G., 2011. Cholesterol esterification and atherogenic index of plasma correlate with lipoprotein size and findings on coronary angiography. J Lipid Res. 52(3), 566-571.

Millán J., Pintó X., Muñoz A., Zúñiga M., Rubiés-Prat J., Pallardo L.F., Masana L., Mangas A., Hernández-Mijares A., González-Santos P., Ascaso J.F., Pedro-Botet J., 2009. Lipoprotein ratios: Physiological significance and clinical usefulness in cardiovascular prevention. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 5,757-765.

Roger V.L., Go A.S., Lloyd-Jones D.M., Benjamin E.J., Berry J.D., Borden W.B., Bravata D.M., Dai S., Ford E.S., Fox C.S., 2012. Heart disease and stroke statistics--2012 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 125(1), e2-e220.

Bodor G.S., 2016. Biochemical markers of myocardial damage. eJIFCC. 27(2), 95-111

Christenson E., Christenson R.H., 2013. Characteristics of cardiac troponin. Coron Artery Dis. 24(8), 698-704.

Alpert J.S., Thygesen K., Antman E., Bassand J.P., 2000. Myocardial Infarction redefined – a consensus document of the joint European society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology Committee for the redefinition of Myocardial Infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 36(3), 959-969.

Meo A.S., 2004. Dose responses of years of exposure on lung function in flour mill workers. J Occup Health. 46(3), 187–191.

Syed S., Bhat G.A., Henah M.B., 2013. Health risks associated with workers in cement factories. IJSRP. 3(5), 1–5.

Meo S.A., Rasheed S., Khan M.M., Shujauddin S., Al-Tuwaijri A.S., 2008. Effect of cement dust exposure on phagocytic function of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in cement mill workers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 21(2),133–139.

Zawilla N., Taha F., Ibrahim Y., 2014. Liver functions in silica-exposed workers in Egypt: possible role of matrix remodeling and immunological factors. Int J Occup Environ Health. 20(2), 146-156.

John O., Olubayo M., 2011. Biochemical and haematological profile in Nigerian cement factory workers. RJET. 5,133 – 140.

Mojiminiyi F.B., Merenu I.A., Ibrahim M.T., Njoku C.H., 2008. The effect of cement dust exposure on haematological and liver function parameters of cement factory workers in Sokoto, Nigeria. Niger J Physiol Sci. 23(1-2), 111-114.

Aydin S., Aral I., Kilic N., Bakan I., Aydin S., Erman F., 2004. The level of antioxidant enzymes, plasma vitamins C and E in cement plant workers. Clin Chim Acta. 341, 193-198.

Aydin S., Aydin S., Croteau G. A., Sahin I., Citil C., 2010. Ghrelin, nitrite and paraoxonase / arylesterase concentrations in cement plant workers. J Med Biochem. 29(2), 78 – 83.

Haro-García L., Juárez-Pérez C.A., Aguilar-Madrid G., Sánchez-Escalante V., Muñoz-Navarro S., Pérez-Lucio C., 2010. Type 2 diabetes in Mexican workers exponed to a potential source of dioxins in the cement industry determined by a job exposure matrix. Med Segur Trab. 56(219), 114-123.

Quispe R., Manalac R.J., Faridi K.F., Blaha M.J., Toth P.P., Kulkarni K.R., Nasir K., Virani S.S., Banach M., Blumenthal R.S., Martin S.S., Jones S.R., 2015. Relationship of the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio to the remainder of the lipid profile: The Very Large Database of Lipids-4 (VLDL-4) study. Atherosclerosis. 242(1), 243-250.

World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki. Recommendations Guiding Physicians in Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects. Adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsinki; Finland, June, 1964, and amended by the 48th General Assembly, Somerset West, Republic of South Africa, October 1996.

Ogunbileje J.O., Sadagoparamanujam V.M., Anetor J.I., Farombi E.O., Akinosun O.M., Okorodudu A.O., 2013. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, calcium, iron, manganese and chromium (VI) levels in Nigeria and United States of America cement dust. Chemosphere. 90(11), 2743-2749.

Murugavel P., Pari L., 2007. Diallyl tetrasulfide protects cadmium-induced alterations in lipids and plasma lipoproteins in rats. Nutr Res. 27, 356–361.

Olisekodiaka M.J., Igbeneghu C.A., Onuegbu A.J., Oduru R., Lawal A.O., 2012. Lipid, lipoproteins, total antioxidant status and organ changes in rats administered high doses of cadmium chloride. Med Princ Pract. 21, 156–159.

Samarghandian S., Azimi-Nezhad M., Shabestari M.M., Azad F. J., Farkhondeh T., Bafandeh F., 2015. Effect of chronic exposure to cadmium on serum lipid, lipoprotein and oxidative stress indices in male rats. Interdiscip Toxicol. 8(3), 151–154.

Kobal A.B., Horvat M., Prezelj M., Briski A.S., Krsnik M., Mazej T.D.D., Falnoga I., Stibilj V., Arneric N., Kobal D., Osredkar J., 2004. The impact of long term exposure to elemental mercury on antioxidative capacity and lipid peroxidation in mercury miners. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 17(4), 261 – 274.

Modhir N.A., Mohamed A.R., Rawaa J., 2014. Study of some Biochemical changes in the blood serum of Sadet-Al-Hindiah cement factory workers, Babylon, Iraq. Int J Interdiscip Multidiscip Stud. 2, 700 – 702.

Dier M.S., Sirwan M.M., Longman O.H., 2014. Some biochemical and Hematological parameters among petroleum and cement factory workers in Sulaimaniyah city/Kurdistan/ Iraq. Chem Material Res. 6(8), 29-33.

Ademuyiwa O., Ugbaja R.N., Idumebor F., Adebawo O., 2005. Plasma lipid profiles and risk of cardiovascular disease in occupational lead exposure in Abeokuta. Nigeria Lipids Health Dis. 4, 19.

Banerjee S.K., Maulik S.K., 2002. Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review. J Nutr. 1(4), 1-14.

Bravo E., Napolitano M., Botham K., 2012.

Post prandial lipid metabolism: The missing link between life-style habits and the increasing incidence of metabolic diseases in western countries. Open Transl Med J. 2, 1-13.

Meo S.A., Al-Drees A.M., Al Masri A.A., Al Rouq F., Azeem M.A., 2013. Effect of duration of exposure to cement dust on respiratory function of non-smoking cement mill workers. Int J Environ Res Public Health.10(1), 390-398.

Akinola M., Okwok N., Yahaya T., 2008. The effects of cement dust on albino rats around West African Portland cement factory in Sagamu, Ogun state, Nigeria. RJET. 2, 1-8.

Rumack B.H., Hall A.H. Information System Micromedex, Inc. Englewood, CO. CCIS Volume 169. Toxicology Data Network, National Library of Medicine: Maryland, 2016.

Manoharan N.V., Miltonprabu S., 2015. Cadmium induced cardiac oxidative stress in rats and its attenuation by GSP through the activation of NrF2 signalling pathway. Chem Biol Interact. 242, 179–193.

Bagale K.R., Ingle A.S., Choudhary R., 2016. Contribution of various lipid profile parameters in determining creatine kinase-MB levels in unstable angina patients. Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 6(2), 106-110.

Iyawe V.I., Ebomoyı M.I.E., Chıwuzıe J.C., Alakıja W., 2000. Some factors whıch may affect blood pressure ın nıgerıan cement factory workers. Afr J Biomed Res. 3, 117 – 121.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.