Fabrication of Mesoporous Silica-coated Graphene Oxide by New Method and Application in Solid Phase Extraction for Preconcentration of Cu2+

Ali Moghimi


Graphene oxide is a derivates of graphene that has a ultrahigh specific surface space with variety of chemically reactive functionalities, such as epoxy and hydroxyl groups on the basal plane and carboxylic acid groups along the area edge, which can be use different groups for functionalization, consequentlyit has a great promise for use as sorbent materials. On the other hand silica is well-known one of the best sorbent for adsorption that we use it as substance for coated on the graphene oxide for produce an ultra-sensitive sorbent. A new technique using a solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge with graphene oxide functionalized by silica as sorbent was developed for the preconcentration of trace amounts of copper and was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Some of the important parameters were selected and optimized. Under the optimized conditions the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.175, 0.585 and the proposed method has a good reproducibility 0.85% (RSD %). The enrichment factor was 200 and the percentage of recovery was in the range of 97-100% .The method was successfully applied to the recovery of Cu2+ in different type of water samples. Graphene oxide and its derivates such as GO@SiO2 in this study are full of potential to use as an excellent adsorbent in the extraction method like solid phase extraction (SPE).


Graphene oxide; Silica; SPE; Preconcentration; FAAS; Copper

Full Text:

PDF xml


Bulut V.N., Tufekci M., Duran C., Soylak M., Kantekin H., 2010. 3D Visualization of iron oxide nanoparticles in MRI of inflammatory. Clean–Soil Air Water. 38, 678-684.

Graf D., Molitor F., Ensslin K., Stampfer C., Jungen A., Hierold C., 2007. Spatially Resolved Raman Spectroscopy Nano Lett. 7, 238–242.

Ansari I.A., Dewani V.K., Khuhawar M.Y., 1999. Flavonoid constituents of Chorizanthe diffusa with potential cancer chemopreventive activity. J Chem Soc Pak. 21, 359-365.

Margel S., Gura S., Bamnolker H., Nitzan B., Tennenbaum T., Bar-Toov B., Hinz M. , Seliger H., in: U. Hafeli, W.schutt, J.Teller,M.Zborowski (Eds.),1997, Scientific and Clinical Applications of Magnetic Carriers, Plenum Press, New York. 481–494.

Afkhami A., Moosavi R., 2010. Adsorptive removal of Congored,acarcinogenic textiledye, fromaqueous solutions by maghemite nano particles. J Hazard Mater. 174, 398–403.

White B.R., Stackhouse B.T., Holocombe J.A., 2009. Magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated withpoly-l-cysteine for chelation of As(III), Cu(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II). J Hazard Mater. 161, 848–853.

Tuutijarvi T., Lu J., Sillanpaa M., Chen G., 2009.As(V)adsorption on maghemitena- noparticles. J Hazard Mater. 166, 1415–1420.

Batterham G.J., Munksgaard N.C., Parry D.L., 1997.Tthe effects of poverty on child health and development Sociology. J Anal At Spectrom. 12, 1277-1282.

Hummers W.S., Offeman R.E., 1958. Functionalized Graphene and Graphene Oxide: Materials Synthesis. J Am Chem Soc. 80, 1339-1344.

Camel V., 2003. Solid phase extraction of trace elements - CNSTN, Spectrochim. Acta Part B. 58, 1177-1182.

Castillo M., Pina-Luis G., D´ıaz-Garc´ıa M.E., Rivero I.A., Redalyc, 2005. Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis of Sensing Sorbent Materials. J Braz Chem. Soc. 16, 412-417.

Eaton A.D., Clesceri L.S., Greenberg A.E., 1995. Standard Methods for the examination of water and waste water, 19th ed ,American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.

Welcher F.J., Boschmann E., 1979. Organic Reagents for Copper, Krieger Huntington, New York.

Marczenko Z., 1986. Separation and Spectrophotometric Determination of Elements, Ellis Horwood, London.

Carasek E., Tonjes J.W., Scharf M., 2002. Solvent Microextraction: Theory and Practice. Quim Nova. 25, 748-755.

Ceccarini A., Cecchini I., Fuoco R., 2005. Flow injection micelle-mediated methodology for determination of lead. Microchem J. 79, 21-29.

Tuzen M., Soylak M., Citak D., Ferreira H.S., Korn M.G.A., Bezerra M.A., 2009. A preconcentration system for determination of copper and nickel in water and food samples employing flame atomic absorption spectrometry. J Hazard Mater.162, 1041-1047.

Choi Y.S., Choi H.S., 2003. Separation of Trace Amount Zn (II) - Journal of Chemical Health Risks, Bull. Korean Chem Soc. 24, 222-229.

Tuzen M., Narin I., Soylak M., Elci L., 2004. XAD‐4/PAN Solid Phase Extraction System for Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determinations of Some Trace Metals in Environmental Samples. Anal Lett. 37,473-480.

Karousis N., Sandanayaka A.S.D., Hasobe T., Economopoulos S.P., Sarantopouloua E., Tagmatarchis N., 2011. The Role of Oxygen during Thermal Reduction of Graphene Oxide. J Mater Chem. 21, 109-118.

Smith M.B., March J., 2001. March’s advanced organic chemistry: reactions, mechanisms, and structure. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1182–3.

Mermoux M., Chabre Y., Rousseau A., 1991. FTIR and carbon-13 NMR study of graphite oxide. Carbon, 29(3),469–74.

Cataldo F., 2003. Structural analogies and differences between graphite oxide and C60 and C70 polymeric oxides (fullerene ozopolymers). Fuller Nanotub Car N. 11(1), 1–13.

Tohidifar H., Moghimi A., Ayvazzadeh O., Eskandari S., 2013. Determination of lead (II) in milk by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after solid phase extraction. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 25 (11), 5981-5987.

Thistlethwaite P.J., Hook M.S., 2000. Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared study of the adsorption of oleate / oleic acid onto titania, Langmuir. 16, 4993-5007.

Taguchi, H., Paal B., Armarego W.L.F., 1997. Glyceryl-ether monooxygenase [EC 1.14. 16.5], Part 9. Stereospecificity of the oxygenase reaction. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans, 1(3), 303–7.

Moghimi A.,Yari M., 2014. Preconcentration of trace Ni (II) using C18 disks nano graphene with amino propyltriethoxysilane (APTES), Merit Research Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology. 2(5), 110-119.

Moghimi A., Akbarieh S.P., 2014. Evaluation of Solid-phase Extraction Sorbent with Octadecane-functionalized Nano Graphene (ODG) for the Preconcentration of Chromium Species in Water, International Journal of Scientific Research in Knowledge. 2(1), 8-21.

Moghimi A., 2013. Detection of trace amounts of Pb(II) by schiff base-chitosan-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Russian J Physic Chem A. 87(7), 1203-1209.

Su X.G., Wang M.J., Zhang Y.H., Zhang J.H., Zhang H.Q., Jin Q.H., 2003. Separation and preconcentration procedures for the determination of lead using spectrometric techniques: A review , Talanta. 59, 989-995.

Soylak M., Karatepe A.U., Elci L., Dogan M.,Column preconcentration/separation and atomic absorption spectrometric determinations of some heavy metals in table salt samples using amberlite XAD-1180,2003.Turkish Journal of Chemistry. 27(2), 235-242.

Szabo T., Berkesi O., Dekany I., 2005. DRIFT study of deuterium-exchanged graphite oxide. Carbon. 43, 3186–9.

Moghimi A., 2014. Extraction of Ni (II) on micro crystalline naphthalene modified with organic-solution-processable functionalized nano graphene. Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 88(7), 1177-1183.

Moghimi A., Abdouss M., 2013. Extraction of Co (II) by Isocyanate Treated Graphite Oxides (iGOs) Adsorbed on Surfactant Coated C18 Before Determination by FAAS. Int J Bio-Inorg Hybd Nanomat. 2(1), 319-327.

Moghimi A., Sabertehrani M., Waquif-Husain S., 2007. Preconcentration and determination of chromium species using octadecyl silica membrane disks and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Chinese Journal of Chemistry. 25 (12), 1859-1865.

Tarigh. G.D., Shemirani F., 2013. Magneticmulti-wall carbon nano tubenano composite as an adsorbent for preconcentration and determination of lead(II) and manganese (II) in variousmatrices . Talanta. 115, 744–750.

Moghimi A., Poursharifi M.J., 2012. Perconcentration of Ni (II) from Sample Water by Modified Nano Fiber, Oriental Journal of Chemistry. Orient J Chem. 28(1), 353-356.

Moghimi A., 2014. Separation and extraction of Co (II) using magnetic chitosan nanoparticles grafted with β-cyclodextrin and determination by FAAS. Russ J Phys Chem A. 88(12), 2157-2164.

Moghimi A., Siahkalrodi S.Y., 2013.Extraction and Determination of Pb (II) by Organic Functionalisation of Graphenes Adsorbed on Surfactant Coated C18 in Environmental Sample. Journal of Chemical Health Risks. 3 (3), 01-12.

Liu Q., Shi J.B., Wang T., Zeng L.X., Jiang G.B., 2011.Graphene and graphene oxide sheets supported on silica as versatile and high-performance adsorbents forsolid-phase.

Akhavan O., 2010. The effect of heat treatment on formation of graphene thin films from graphene oxide nan sheets, Carbon. 48, 509–519.

Kudin K.N., Ozbas B., Schniepp H.C., Prud’homme R.K., Aksay I.A., Car B., 2008. Raman spectra of graphite oxide and functionalized graphene sheets. Nano Letters. 8, 36–41.

Ferrari A.C., Meyer J.C., Scardaci V., Casiraghi C., Lazzeri M., Mauri F., Piscanec S., Jiang D., Novoselov K.S., Roth S., Geim A.K., 2006. Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers. Physical Review Letters. 97, 187401–1874014.

Zhu Y., Murali S., Cai W., Li X., Suk J.W., Potts J.R., Ruoff R.S., 2010. Graphene and graphene oxide: synthesis, properties, and applications, Adv. Mater. 22, 3906–3924.

Xu Y.X., Bai H., Lu G.W., Li C., Shi G.Q., 2008.Flexible graphene films via the filtration of water-soluble no covalent functionalized graphene sheets. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 130, 5856–5857.

Guo H.L., Wang X.F., Qian Q.Y., Wang F.B., Xia X.H., 2009. A green approach to the synthesis of graphene Nano sheets. ACS Nano. 3, 2653–2659.

Leng W.G., Chen M., Zhou S.X., Wu L.M., 2010. Capillary force induced formation of monodisperse polystyrene/silica organic–inorganic hybrid hollow spheres. Langmuir. 26, 14271–14275.


  • There are currently no refbacks.