Characterizing Changes of Heavy Metals in the Soils from Different Urban Location of Borujerd, Lorestan Province, Iran

Eisa Solgi, Abolfazl Khodadadi, Mohsen Mohammadi Galangashi

Abstract


As more people live in cities and urban areas, evaluation of urban environmental quality is nowadays an unavoidable necessity. Urbanization gives off heavy metals into urban soils and threatens the human health. In this study, urban soil samples were acquired from different locations (Public parks, streets, and squares) from Borujerd, Iran. The levels of Cd and Pb in the soils, along with soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and particle size distribution (texture), were analyzed. Kriging method by Surfer software was employed to create the spatial distribution maps of Cd, Pb, and geoaccumulation index (Igeo). The average Cd and Pb concentrations in the surface soil samples were 2.50±1.14, and 50.37±34.77 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The highest mean concentration of Cd was found in street soils and as for Pb in square soils. The interpolation maps illustrated the same behavior for Cd and Pb with elevated concentrations located in the southeast. The mean values of geoaccumulation index (Igeo) showed that soils are moderately/strongly contaminated with Cd and moderately contaminated with Pb. In this study, traffic emission, textile industries and probably released untreated municipal wastewater into the soil are anthropogenic sources of Pb and Cd.

Keywords


Geoaccumulation index (Igeo); Spatial distribution; Soil pollution; Cd and Pb; Borujerd

Full Text:

PDF XML

References


Sherameti I., Varma A., 2015. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils: Monitoring and Remediation. Springer International Publishing. pp. 497.

Liu R., Wang M., Chen W., Peng C., 2016. Spatial pattern of heavy metals accumulation risk in urban soils of Beijing and its influencing factors. Environ Pollut. 210, 174-181.

Mao Q., Huang G., BuyantuevA., Wu J., Luo S., Ma K., 2014. Spatial heterogeneity of urban soils: the case of the Beijing metropolitan region, China. Ecol Process. 3(23), 1-11.

Peña-Fernández A., Lobo-Bedmar M.C., González-Muñoz M.J., 2015. Annual and seasonal variability of metals and metalloids in urban and industrial soils in Alcalá de Henares (Spain). Environ Res. 136, 40–46.

Xia X., Chen X., Liu R., Liu H., 2011. Heavy metals in urban soils with various types of land use in Beijing, China. J Hazard Mater. 186(2), 2043–2050.

Wei B., Yang L., 2010. A review of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils, urban road dusts and agricultural soils from China. Microchem J. 94(2), 99-107.

Duzgoren-Aydin N.S., Wong C.S.C., Aydin A., Song Z., You M., Li X.D., 2006. Heavy metal contamination and distribution in the urban environment of Guangzhou, SE China. Environ Geo-chemistr Health. 28, 375–39.

Han Y., Du P., Cao J., Posmentier E.S., 2006. Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination in urban dusts of Xi'an, Central China. Sci Total Environ. 355, 176–186.

Morton-Bermea O., Hernández-Álvarez E., González-Hernández G., Romero F., Lozano R., Beramendi-Orosco L.E., 2009. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in urban topsoils from the metropolitan area of Mexico City. J Geochem Explor. 101, 218–224.

Chen T.B., Zheng Y.M., Lei M., Huang Z.C., Wu H.T., Chen H., Fan K.K., Yu K., Wu X., Tian Q.Z., 2005. Assessment of Heavy metals pollution in surface soils of urban parks in Beijing china. Chemosphere. 60, 542-551.

Tokalıoğlu Ş., Yılmaz V., Karta Ş., 2010. An As-sessment on Metal Sources by Multivariate Analysis and Speciation of Metals in Soil Samples Using the BCR Sequential Extraction Procedure. Clean Soil Air Water. 38(8), 713–718.

Rossini Oliva S., Fernández Espinosa A.J., 2007. Monitoring of heavy metals in topsoils, atmospheric particles and plant leaves to identify possible contamination sources. Microchem J. 86,131–139.

Papafilippaki A., Sotiriou C., Paida E., Stavroulakis G., 2008. Spatial distribution of Pb and Cd in urban soils of Chania city, Crete (Greece). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on “Hazardous Waste Management”, 1-3 October 2008 Chania. Greece.

Pokras M., 2005. Essentials of medical geology: impacts of natural environment on public health. Environ Health Perspect. 113(11), A780.

Aleksander-Kwaterczak U., Rajca A., 2015. Urban soil contamination with lead and cadmium in the playgrounds located near busy streets in Cracow (South Poland). Geology, Geophysics & Environment. 41(1), 7–16.

Imperato M., Adamo P., Naimo D., Arienzo M., Stanzione D., Violante P., 2003. Spatial distribution of heavy metals in urban soils of Naples city (Italy).

Environ Pollut. 124, 247–256.

Chirenje T, Ma L.Q., Reeves M., Szulczewski M., 2004. Lead distribution in near-surface soils of two Florida cities: Gainesville and Miami. Geoderma. 119, 113–120.

Biasioli M., Barberis R., Ajmone-Marsan F., 2006. The influence of a large city on some soil properties and metals content. Sci Total Environ. 356, 154–164.

Lee C.S., Li X.D., Wenzhong S.W., Cheun S.C., Thornton I., 2006. Metal contamination in urban, suburban and country park soils of Hong Kong: a study based on GIS and multivariate statistics. Sci Total Environ. 356, 45–61.

Odewande A.A., Abimbola A.F., 2008. Contamination indices and heavy metal concentra-tions in urban soil of Ibadam metropolis, southwestern Nigeria.

Environ Geochem Health. 30, 243–254.

Lu S.G., Bai Q., 2010. Contamination and potential mobility assessment of heavy metals in urban soils of Hangzhou, China: relationship with different land uses. Environ Earth Sci. 60, 1481–1490.

Praveena S.M., Yuswir N.S., Aris A.Z., Hashim Z., 2015b. Contamination assessment and potential human health risks of heavy metals in Klang urban soils: a preliminary study. Environ Earth Sci. 73, 8155–8165.

Luo X.S., Xue Y., Wang Y.L., Cang L., Xu B., Ding J., 2015. Source identification and ap-portionment of heavy metals in urban soil profiles. Chemosphere. 127,152–157.

Mugoša B., Ðurovi´c D., Nedovi´c-Vukovi´c M., Barjaktarovi´c-Labovi´c S., Vrvi´c M., 2016. Assess-ment of Ecological Risk of Heavy Metal Contamination in Coastal Municipalities of Montenegro. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 13, 393.1-15.

Ahmadi N.A., Modiri M., Mamdohi S., 2013. First survey of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Borujerd county, western Islamic Republic of Iran. East Medi-terr Health J. 19(10), 847-853.

Ma L. Yang Z., Li L., Wang L., 2016. Source identification and risk assessment of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils of Changsha, a mine-impacted city in Southern China. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 23(17), 17058–17066.

Díaz Rizo O., Fonticiella Morell D., Arado López J.O., Borrell Muñoz J.L., D'Alessandro Rodríguez K., López N., 2013. Spatial distribution and contamination assessment of heavy metals in urban topsoils from Las Tunas City, Cuba. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 91(1), 29-35.

Xiaoya L., Yijin C., Le Q., Fun S., 2012. The distribution characteristics of heavy metals in Guiyang urban soils Chin. J Geochem. 31, 174–180.

Rouillon M., Gore D.B., Taylor M.P., 2013. The nature and distribution of Cu, Zn, Hg, and Pb in urban soils of a regional city: Lithgow, Australia. Appl Geochem. 36, 83–91.

Maas S., Scheifler R., Benslama M., Crini N., Lucot E., Brahmis Z., 2010. Spatial distribution of heavy metal concentrations in urban, suburban and agricultural soils in a Mediterranean city of Algeria. Environ Pollut. 158, 2294–2301.

Burt R., Hernandez L., Shaw R., Tunstead R., Ferguson R., Peaslee S., 2014. Trace element concentration and speciation in selected urban soils in New York City. Environ Monit Assess. 186, 195–215.

Pouyat R.V., Yesilonis I.D., Russell-Anelli J., Neer-chal N.K., 2007. Soil chemical and physical properties that differentiate urban landuse and cover type. Soil Sci Soc Am J. 71, 1010–1019.

Praveena S.M., Syed Ismail S.N., Zaharin Aris A., 2015a. Health risk assessment of heavy metal exposure in urban soil from Seri Kembangan (Malaysia) Arab J Geosci. 8(11), 9753-9761.

Solgi E., 2016. Contamination of Two Heavy Metals in Topsoils of the Urban Parks Asadabad, Iran 2013. Arch Hyg Sci. 5 (2), 92-101

Sayadi M.H. Shabani M., Ahmadpour N. 2015. Pollution Index and Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in the Surface Soils of Amir-Abad Area in Birjand City, Iran. Health Scope. 4(1), e21137.

Moosavi M.H., Zarasvandi A., 2009. Geochemistry of Urban Soils in the Masjed-i-Soleiman (MIS) City, Khuzestan Province, Iran: Environmental Marks. Res J Environ Sci. 3,392-399.

Sherene T., 2010. Mobility and transport of heavy metals in polluted soil environment. Biological Forum. 2(2), 112-121.

Li F.L., Liu C.Q., Yang Y.G., Bi X.Y., Liu T.Z., Zhao Z.Q., 2012. Natural and anthropogenic lead in soils and vegetables around Guiyang city, southwest China: a Pb isotopic approach. Sci Total Environ. 431, 339-47.

Sun Y., Zhou Q., Xie X., Liu R., 2010. Spatial, sources and risk assessment of heavy metal contamination of urban soils in typical regions of Shenyang, China. J Hazard Mater. 174(1), 455–462.

Ravankhah N., Mirzaei R., Masoum S., 2016. Spatial Eco-Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Surface Soils of Industrial City of Aran-o-Bidgol, Iran. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 96(4), 516-23.

Kabir E., Ray S., Kim K.H., Yoon H.O., Jeon E.C., Kim Y.S., Cho Y.S., Yun S.T., Brown R.J.C. 2012. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities. Scientific World J. Article ID 916705, 18 pages.

Kashem A., Singh B.R., 1999. Heavy metal contamination of soil and vegetation in the vicinity of industries in Bangladesh,” Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 115(1–4), 347–361.

.Yang Z., Lu W., Long Y., Bao X., Yang Q., 2011. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in urban topsoil from Changchun City. China J Geochem Explor. 108, 27–38.

Doležalová Weissmannová H., Pavlovský J., Chovanec P., 2015. Heavy metal Contaminations of Urban soils in Ostrava, Czech Republic: Assessment of Metal Pollution and using Principal Component Analysis. Int J Environ Res. 9(2), 683-696.

Muller G., 1969. Index of geoaccumulation in sediments of the Rhine River. J Geol. 2,108–118.

Loska K., Wiechula D., Korus I., 2004. Metal contamination of farming soils affected by industry. Environ Int. 30,159–165.

Taylor S., 1964. Abundance of chemical elements in the continental crust: a new table. Geo-chim Cosmochim Acta. 28(8), 1273-85.

Bear F.E., 1976. Chemistry of the soil. 2nd Edn (Third Indian Reprint) Oxford and IBH publishing Co. New Delhi.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.